Ground and water source heat pumps are generally more efficient than air source heat pumps and produce around 4 kW of heat energy for every 1 kW of electricity used to drive them.
Air source heat pumps produce around 3 kW of heat energy per 1 kW of electricity, but are more noticeably affected by changes in temperature. On the coldest days in winter, air source systems can produce as little as 2 kW of heat energy per 1 kW of electricity.
At their absolute maximum, well designed open loop water source systems can operate with a coefficient of performance of 7, which means for each unit of energy used to run the system, up to seven units of usable heating are delivered.
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